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One distinctive feature of Hawaii's climate is the small annual variation in temperature range. Because of Hawaii's close proximity to the Equator, there is only a slight variation in length of night and day through the year. The small variations in the length of the daylight period, together with the smaller annual variations in the altitude of the sun above the horizon, result in relatively small variations in the amount of incoming solar energy from one time of the year to another. The surface waters of the open ocean around Hawaii range from 77 °F (25 °C) between late February and early April, to a maximum of 83 °F (28 °C) in late September or early October. Water temperatures remain this mild for hundreds of miles around. In the United States, only Florida has warmer surf temperatures.

Temperatures at sea level generally range from highs of 85–90 °F (29–32 °C) during the summer months to 79–83 °F (26–28 °C) during the winter months. Rarely does the temperature rise above 90 °F (32 °C) or drop below 65 °F (18 °C) at lower elevations. Temperatures are lower at higher altitudes.

The American state of Hawaii, which covers the Hawaiian Islands, is tropical but it experiences many different climates, depending on altitude and surrounding. The island of Hawaii for example hosts 4 (out of 5 in total) climate groups on a surface as small as 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2) according to the Köppen climate types: tropical, arid, temperate and polar. When counting also the Köppen sub-categories the island of Hawaii hosts 8 (out of 13 in total) climate zones. The islands receive most rainfall from the trade winds on their north and east flanks (the windward side) as a result of orographic precipitation. Coastal areas are drier, especially the south and west side or leeward sides.